Saturday, March 14, 2020

Beringian Standstill Hypothesis of the First Americans

Beringian Standstill Hypothesis of the First Americans The Beringian Standstill Hypothesis, also known as the Beringian Incubation Model (BIM), proposes that the people who would eventually colonize the Americas spent between ten to twenty thousand years stranded on the Bering Land Bridge (BLB), the now-submerged plain beneath the Bering Sea called Beringia. The BIM argues that during the turbulent times of the Last Glacial Maximum about 30,000 years ago, people from what is today Siberia in northeastern Asia arrived in Beringia. Because of local climate changes, they became trapped there, cut off from Siberia by glaciers in the Verkhoyansk Range in Siberia and in the Mackenzie River valley in Alaska. There they remained in the tundra environment of Beringia until retreating glaciers and rising sea levels allowedand eventually forcedtheir migration into the remainder of the Americas about 15,000 years ago. If true, the BIM explains the long-recognized, deeply puzzling discrepancy of the late dates for the colonization of the Americas (Preclovis sites such as Upward Sun River Mouth in Alaska) and the similarly stubbornly early dates of the antecedent Siberian sites (the Yana Rhinoceros Horn site in Siberia; for some of this discussion, see ORourke and Raff). The BIM also disputes the notions of three waves of migration. Up until recently, scholars explained a perceived variation in mitochondrial DNA among modern (indigenous) Americans by postulating multiple waves of migration from Siberia, or even, for a while, Europe. But, recent macro-studies of mtDNA identified a series of pan-American genome profiles, shared by modern Americans from both continents, decreasing the perception of widely varying DNA. Scholars still think that there was a post-glacial migration from northeast Asia of the ancestors of the Aleut and Inuitbut that side-issue is not addressed here, see Adachi and colleagues, Long and colleagues, and Schurr and colleagues in the bibliography. Evolution of the Beringian Standstill Hypothesis The environmental aspects of the BIM were proposed by Eric Hultà ©n in the 1930s, who argued that the now-submerged plain beneath the Bering Strait was a refuge for people, animals and plants during the coldest parts of the Last Glacial Maximum, between 28,000 and 18,000 calendar years ago (cal BP). Dated pollen studies from the floor of the Bering Sea and from adjacent lands to the east and west support Hultà ©ns hypothesis, indicating that the region was a mesic tundra habitat, similar to that of tundra in the foothills of the Alaska range today. Several tree species, including spruce, birch and alder, were present in the region, providing fuel for fires. Mitochondrial DNA is the strongest support for the BIM hypothesis. That was published in 2007 by Tamm and colleagues, who identified evidence for the genetic isolation of ancestral Native Americans from Asia. Tamm and colleagues identified a set of genetic haplogroups common to most living Native American groups (A2, B2, C1b, C1c, C1d*, C1d1, D1, and D4h3a), haplogroups that had to have arisen after their ancestors left Asia, but before they dispersed into the Americas. In a 2012 study, Auerbach reports that although there is variation among the five (admittedly a very tiny population) early Holocene male skeletons which have been recovered from North America, the individuals all have wide bodies, a trait shared by Native American communities today and which is associated with adaptations to cold climates. Auerbach argues that people from the Americas have wider bodies than other populations around the world. If true, that also supports the isolation model, as it would have been a shared trait developed in Beringea before people dispersed. Genomes and Beringia A 2015 study (Raghavan et al.) comparing genomes of modern people from all over the world found support for the Beringian Standstill Hypothesis, albeit reconfiguring the time depth. This study argues that the ancestors of all Native Americans were genetically isolated from East Asians no earlier than than 23,000 years ago. They hypothesize that a single migration into the Americas occurred between 14,000 and 16,000 years ago, following the open routes within the interior Ice Free corridors or along the Pacific coast. By the Clovis period (~12,600-14,000 years ago), isolation caused a split among the Americans into northernAthabascans and northern Amerindian groupsand southerncommunities from southern North America and Central and South America. Raghavan et al. also found what they termed a distant Old World signal related to Australo-Melanesians and East Asians in some Native American groups, ranging from a strong signal in the Suruà ­Ã‚  of Brazils Amazon forest to a much weaker signal in northern Amerindians such as Ojibwa. Raghavan et al. hypothesize that the Australo-Melanesian gene flow may have arrived from Aleutian Islanders traveling along the Pacific rim about 9,000 years ago. In an article released the same week as Raghavan et al., Skoglund et al. reported similar research and resulting genetic evidence. While their results are largely the same, they emphasized the Australo-Melanesian gene flow among South American groups, terming it evidence of Population Y, and arguing that the data support a long-standing theory concerning ancient Australo-Melanesian voyages to the New World. This model is over a decade old, but was built on cranial morphology and has not had genome support before this time. Skoglund et al. admit that DNA has not been retrieved from crania exhibiting the supposed physical affinities to Australo-Melanesians. See Was there Pre-columbian Contact Between Polynesia and America for additional discussion. Archaeological Sites Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site, Russia, 28,000 cal BP, six sites above the Arctic Circle and east of the Verkhoyansk Range. Malta, Russia, 15,000-24,000 cal BP: DNA of a child burial at this upper Paleolithic site shares genomes with modern western Eurasians and Native Americans bothFunadomari, Japan, 22,000 cal BP: Jomon culture burials share mtDNA in common with Eskimo (haplogroup D1, see Adachi)On Your Knees Cave, Alaska, 10,300 cal BP (see Perego 2009 Paisley Caves, Oregon 14,000 cal BP, coprolites containing mtDNA Monte Verde, Chile, 15,000 cal BP, first confirmed preclovis site in the Americas Kennewick  and Spirit Cave, USA, both 9,000 years cal BP (wide body form, see Auerbach) Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia, Canada Daisy Cave, California, US Ayer Pond, Washington, US Upward Sun River Mouth, Alaska, US Sources This article is a part of the About.com guide to the Population of Americas, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Adachi N, Shinoda K-i, Umetsu K, and Matsumura H. 2009. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Jomon skeletons from the Funadomari site, Hokkaido, and its implication for the origins of Native American. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138(3):255-265. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20923 Auerbach BM. 2012. Skeletal variation among early Holocene North American humans: Implications for origins and diversity in the Americas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149(4):525-536. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22154 Hoffecker JF, Elias SA, and ORourke DH. 2014. Out of Beringia? Science 343:979-980. doi:10.1126/science.1250768 Kashani BH, Perego UA, Olivieri A, Angerhofer N, Gandini F, Carossa V, Lancioni H, Semino O, Woodward SR, Achilli A et al. 2012. Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: A rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(1):35-39. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21614 Long JC, and Ctira Bortolini M. 2011. New developments in the origins and evolution of Native American populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 146(4):491-494. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21620 ORourke DH, and Raff JA. 2010. The Human Genetic History of the Americas: The Final Frontier. Current Biology 20(4):R202-R207. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.051 Perego UA, Achilli A, Angerhofer N, Accetturo M, Pala M, Olivieri A, Kashani BH, Ritchie KH, Scozzari R, Kong Q-P et al. 2009. Distinctive Paleo-Indian Migration Routes from Beringia Marked by Two Rare mtDNA Haplogroups. Current Biology 19:1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.058 Raff JA, Bolnick DA, Tackney J, and ORourke DH. 2011. Ancient DNA perspectives on American colonization and population history. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 146(4):503-514. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21594 Raghavan M, Skoglund P, Graf KE, Metspalu M, Albrechtsen A, Moltke I, Rasmussen S, Reedik M, Campos PF, Balanovska E et al. 2014. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans. Nature 505(7481):87-91. doi: 10.1038/nature12736 Raghavan M, Steinrà ¼cken M, Harris K, Schiffels S, Rasmussen S, DeGiorgio M, Albrechtsen A, Valdiosera C, vila-Arcos MC, Malaspinas A-S et al. 2015. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3884 Reich D, Patterson N, Campbell D, Tandon A, Mazieres S, Ray N, Parra MV, Rojas W, Duque C, Mesa N et al. 2012. Reconstructing Native American population history. Nature 488(7411):370-374. doi:10.1038/nature11258 Schurr TG, Dulik MC, Owings AC, Zhadanov SI, Gaieski JB, Vilar MG, Ramos J, Moss MB, Natkong F, and The Genographic C. 2012. Clan, language, and migration history has shaped genetic diversity in Haida and Tlingit populations from Southeast Alaska. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148(3):422-435. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22068 Skoglund P, Mallick S, Bortolini MC, Chennagiri N, Hunemeier T, Petzl-Erler ML, Salzano FM, Patterson N, and Reich D. 2015. Genetic evidence for two founding populations of the Americas. Nature advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/nature14895 Tamm E, Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu M, Smith DG, Mulligan CJ, Bravi CM, Rickards O, Martinez-Labarga C, Khusnutdinova EK et al. 2007. Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders. PLoS ONE 2(9):e829. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000829 Wheat A. 2012. Survey of professional opinions regarding the peopling of America. SAA Archaeological Record 12(2):10-14.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

W3,DQ-4 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

W3,DQ-4 - Essay Example Scientific development is the cumulative growth of a knowledge system over time where useful elements are retained, and non-useful elements are deserted rooted in the verification or rejection of testable knowledge (Zwick & Cayla, 2011). Cultural progress is inextricably connected to both technological and scientific progress. Culture naturally concerns much more than just science and technology, but for Merck to be progressive, it has to meet the above explanation of cumulative growth through thanking the past (Zwick & Cayla, 2011). In science, useful elements are retained, and non-useful elements are discarded through the verification or dismissal of testable knowledge. Merck, therefore, should consider that scientific methods, in this way, are created to be progressive (Gilbert & Sarkar, 2005). In technology, on the other hand, useful elements are preserved and non-useful elements are discarded rooted in the market’s rejection or approval of the technologies. The market for science is mainly the community of scientists, but for technology, the market is mainly Merck’s stuff. In order for Merck to be successful, they need to endorse science and technology to the core to avoid such wrangles (Zwick & Cayla, 2011). Above all, the corporation is built on a firm scientific-led culture; therefore, they should work to ensure that this objective is

Monday, February 10, 2020

The past, present and future of standards in software engineering Essay

The past, present and future of standards in software engineering - Essay Example This paper will review the evolution of standard software engineering, and how users are affected by this evolution process. The advancement in technology is making it easier for these organizations to be more effective and more advanced. Standards in software engineering have reached a level where, anything is possible. The creation of programs that seek to identify all the would-be users’ needs has revolutionised the way things work in the modern world. Operations are carried out with ease. The effectiveness and precision with which these operations are carried out is growing (Mall 2009). Writing software, to some, is a profession from which they earn their living. Standards range from local invented, to international standards that help software be accepted globally. These are the de facto standards which enable people to operate software that is acceptable throughout the world. Government entities in the world approve of these standard-setting organizations. Some organizations have recognition that reaches the whole world when it comes to setting software standards. The International Organization of Standardization is one of the few. It is abbreviated as ISO. It is a representation of many international bodies. This progress has enabled software standards to have global acceptance (Puntambekar 2009). The evolution of software standards can incorporate the understanding of much more than local industries present in the world. At present, this demand is growing with each passing day. Therefore, soon enough, the future for software engineering will reach its peak (O’Regan 2012). This advancement will enable people to get extra work complete, while taking less time. This is what everybody wants because effectiveness is the aim of this progress. Through the ISO/IEC, many software standards are set and developed to help the global community get through some of the programs that exist. An example of standard in software is the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Isolation in Hardys poems Nobody Comes and The Darkling Thrush Essay Example for Free

Isolation in Hardys poems Nobody Comes and The Darkling Thrush Essay In the poems â€Å"The Darkling Thrush† [‘TDT’] and â€Å"Nobody Comes† [‘NC’], Hardy presents two similar images of isolation. In both poems, the personae are isolated from human company, whilst Hardy explores this using imagery of ghosts and the supernatural in both also. However, individually there are differences in tone; although NC ends upon as dire a note as it begins, Hardy engineers an optimistic outlook in TDT and suggests that the persona’s isolation may not Hardy ensures that the persona of ‘TDT’ is isolated from any other human presence or, until the poem’s third stanza, any living organism. Whilst leaning against â€Å"a coppice gate†, he notes that â€Å"all mankind had sought their household fires†. Although this is an indication of the low temperature, it is noticeable that the rest of humanity are seeking light in an otherwise dark environment; reciprocally, the persona is deprived of both warmth and living company. To further this point, Hardy personifies non-human entities, such as frost and winter – â€Å"Winter’s dregs†, for example. In this way, Hardy makes the reader personal not with living creatures but with inanimate entities, isolating the animate persona even more. Indeed, Hardy makes such a division more striking by picturing the persona’s surroundings as very extreme. Surrounded by deathly imagery, the persona imagines the landscape as â€Å"the Century’s corpse/ His crypt the canopy,/ The wind his death lament†. Even Hardy’s animate entities seem ghostly; â€Å"Frost was spectre-gray† and â€Å"mankind haunted nigh†. Such is the state of decay that even â€Å"the ancient pulse of germ and birth was shrunken† – the regenerative power of life has itself died, leaving the persona as the sole animate existence. A similar loneliness can be seen in ‘NC’, especially towards the end of the poem. In the aftermath of the car passing, the persona observes, â€Å"mute by the gate†, that he â€Å"stand[s] again alone.† The sudden silence and soft, finite ‘t’ sound of â€Å"mute† – in contrast to the onomatopoeic â€Å"whangs† – amplifies the persona’s loneliness; as does the empty assonance in the repeated ‘a’ sound, in â€Å"alone† and â€Å"again†. Equally, the present tense verb â€Å"stands† and â€Å"again† emphasizes that this is an ongoing and repeated state of isolation. However, the persona in ‘Nobody Comes’ is not simply isolated in terms of being physically alone or the sole living creature – he is also isolated from modernity. Hardy again uses ‘supernatural’ imagery to explore this. The persona notes that â€Å"The telegraph wire intones like a spectral lyre/ Swept by a spectral hand†. Rather than see the telegraph wire as a means of communication, the persona rejects it in presenting an image of disassociation; the vagueness of the verb â€Å"intones† summons an image of faceless voices. He also creates negative supernatural connotations; there is an innate ghostliness about the archaic lyre – juxtaposed to contrast with the innate modernity of the telegraph wire – which is reinforced by the wraithlike â€Å"spectral†. Hardy repeats this for emphasis in â€Å"spectral hand†. In this phrase, he also creates an incongruity between the concrete verb â€Å"swept† and noun â€Å"hand† and the abstract concept of â€Å"ghostliness† – the ‘hand’ does not exist. Its invisible presence and visible effects are unnerving, making the modern telegraph wire an unpleasant image. The persona’s rejection of modernity can be seen also in the depiction of â€Å"a car com[ing] up†. Having shone its aggressive lamps at â€Å"full glare† – which Hardy emphasizes by placing at the end of the line –the persona states that â€Å"it has nothing to do with me†. This maxim, in being so blunt, is very powerful. It operates to present a rift between the persona and the modern world and, given the unusually colloquial verb â€Å"whangs†, it indicates that the car is viewed as a callous representation of modern life from which the persona wishes to isolate himself. It leaves â€Å"leaving a blacker air†, which may indicate either a corruption of nature (in terms of polluting the otherwise fresh air) or a darkening in the persona’s emotions. Indeed, the poem concludes with the same negativity, with the word â€Å"nobody† in both the title and the last line. The persona is left â€Å"again alone† and isolated, prompting a large amount of sympathy from the reader. By contrast, ‘TDT’ concludes with a hopeful note. At the appearance of the thrush, in the third stanza, the reader notes that the bird is similarly isolated and surrounded by death. In truth, the reader’s initial reaction to the â€Å"aged frail, gaunt and small† thrush is to question whether the creature will survive the bleak conditions. There is a sense of desperation present â€Å"fling[ing its] soul/ Upon the growing gloom.† However, the persona notices â€Å"some blessed Hope† in the bird’s â€Å"happy good-night air†. Although â€Å"unaware† of why this may be – such â€Å"joy illimited† is unintelligible to the persona – this leads the poem to end in an optimistic fashion. Although both the persona and the thrush remain isolated from any other company (the persona fails to deeply associate with the bird) and the anxiety about the future lingers, Hardy does much to suggest that such deep rooted â€Å"fervourlessness† may change in TDT’s persona, as opposed to the ongoing isolation present in NC.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Ancient Egypt :: Ancient Egypt Egyptian History

Ancient Egypt One of the most interesting aspects of ancient Egypt is its religion. The depth of Egyptian thinking and rich imagination displayed in the creation of ideas and images of the gods and goddesses is beyond compare. On elaborating their beliefs, the Egyptians were working on the cosmic plane searching for an understanding of the most basic laws of the universe (Religion). The ancient Egyptians instilled their religion into every aspect of life including their art and architecture. The Egyptians were humanistic, naturalistic and polytheistic in their ardent faith. They were humanistic in that they worshiped man, particularly the pharaoh; naturalistic in that they deified the forces of nature; and polytheistic in that they believed in thousands of gods and goddesses (Thompson). These gods were responsible for all aspects of their existence (Cunningham). The Egyptians saw no distinction between the creator and his creation. They believed the gods to be powers, which could be manipulated by man for his own benefit (Thompson). Because they believed in so many gods, the Egyptians invented rituals to praise them all. The rituals in turn affected the daily life of every Egyptian (Soul). These deities included Hathor, the goddess of beauty and love; Bes, the god of war; Anibus, the god of death; and Hapi, the god of the Nile. The Egyptians also praised animals such as, the jackal and the cat (Cunningham). The Egyptians treasured life in this world and did everything in their power to ensure immortality in the next life (Thompson). The ancient Egyptians attitude towards death was influenced by their belief in immortality. They regarded death as the beginning of life, instead of the end (Life). All Egyptians were offered the hope of survival in the next world as a reward for a good life in a form that was thought of in literal, physical terms (Cunningham). The funerary customs and beliefs of the Egyptians called for the preservation of the body and ample provisions for the afterlife (O'Brien). Of the provisions provided for the afterlife were food, drink, clothing, and boats. They buried two boats with the deceased so that they would have a smooth sail into their after life (Soul). The funeral rites with their meaning were described in a series of sacred text known collectively as the Book of The Dead (Cunningham). Osiris was the god who presided over the ceremonies (Cunningham). The Egyptians further conjectured that the deceased would go before the god Anibus, and if they passed a series of sacred test they would eventually move on to live with the gods for all eternity (Hieronimus).

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

A Cultural Event I Ever Witnessed Essay

Kenyatta University is known beyond African continent for its annual culture week, an event during which activities that reflect diverse African culture are performed. The much awaited cultural week is characterized by songs, drama, poems, drama among other topical activities. I was privileged to attend the cultural week organized during the month of September, 2007 and held both at the universities cultural village and the finals held at the Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Kenya. The most interesting was a traditional song presented in one of the native languages reflecting the manner with which the interest of others present and could not understand the local languages were catered for. Most of the songs were presented by groups composed of members from different communities, a clear indication of the cooperation and sharing within the communities at that time. A great artistic skill was depicted in the manner in which the singing group combined the different sounds to produce an enjoyable song, with coming in at different times and parts. It was accompanied by both traditional and modern instruments, stringed, drums, the piano and projected by the loud speakers for many to be able to hear. The performing group wrapped a lesso on their bodies. However, most of the traditional costumes were missing, enough to predict that the communities were moving away from the traditional dressing codes. The song was introduced by two of the performers, who played different parts in turn, the dance was in pairs and the group also left the stage in pairs. Through out the song though at different points, tonal variation was employed and this caught interest of the audience. All these reflected a great style. The lead singer who happened to be a lady demonstrated a great ability in tonal variation and dancing more than others in the team. Others could be heard whispering that â€Å"she is genius†, and actually she was and in all her performances, none matched her. It was a fact that the song described above had a lot in common with other forms of cultural expression at that time. Other forms as well included more than one performer, and involved the use of sound to communicate. Many forms of expression adhere to a specific style during performance and involve some degree of individual inherent exceptional ability, even though training also efficiently enhance success of such forms. They are performed during a cultural event and need audience. However, in contrast, most of the forms of cultural expression at that time were in a common language (that is English language) and did not involve cultural accompamyments neither was dance a common characteristic even though some element of demonstration were evidenced. REFERENCES Cook, N (1990) music imagination and culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Bratton, J. S (Ed. ) (1986) music Hall: Performance and Style. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Sloboda, J. A (1985) The Musical Mind: The cognitive Psychology of Music. New York: Clarendom Press.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Cultural Values - 1321 Words

Each person develops in some type of culture. It is the environment that we live in that determines what we learn, how we learn it, and the rules for living with others. My family and I are Peruvian. That would make me Hispanic in the United States. My origins are straight from Peru. I came to the United States when I was 12 years old, so my beliefs and traditions haven’t changed from when I was still in Peru. There are rules that are transmitted from one generation to the next and are often adapted to the times and locations, and these rules are absorbed by children as we develop and learn about home country traditions, customs and beliefs. These customs will still follow us throughout your life. Although a person can be broken down into†¦show more content†¦I knew everything was going to change. But it was then when I came to know my culture values. It took perhaps the combination of being in another, foreign culture and being away from my own to make clear to me the impact of culture on my life. I began to know the value of Familismo. I started to value more than before the close relationship I had with my relatives. I even realized that being a country that gives many opportunities could allow me and my family to aid my members of the family experiencing financial problems, unemployment, or other issues. When I came to the United States I also came to put in practice the value of Simpatia (â€Å"kindness†) as well as the value of Respeto. I was taught to value respect, and be kind to others. For example when my parents, elders or other relatives need care I am responsible to care for them as just as they took care of me in my earliest stages of life. I was taught to never answer back to not only elders, but to anyone who’s older than I. I had the privilege of having experienced both Hispanic and American cultures; however growing up with mainly Hispanic culture values has shaped me to be the person I am today. Once my family and I were living here, one of the cultural values that we put in practice within my family was the eating habits. While I lived in Peru, it was customary for my dad to come home from work for about two hours to be together for lunch. But once we settled inShow MoreRelatedCultural Value And Cultural Values Essay2952 Words   |  12 Pagesunique and require a lot of understanding and comprehension. To do this, different cultural value dimensions should be studied and applied to a culture. Applying this to the business environment will be more complicated especially in a multinational company. To be a successful leader or manager in a company, one must fully understand each member of his team as well know his team’s cultural background. 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